The role of physical agents in modulating pain.

This article presents a review of the literature on the use of physical agents in modulating pain associated the hand and upper extremity musculoskeletal conditions. The physical agents presented include superficial heating agents, cryotherapy, ultrasound, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. There has been increased interest in modes of transdermal drug...

Transdermal approaches to pain in sports injury management.

There is much lore about training room treatments for common overuse and traumatic musculoskeletal injuries. This review looks at the evidence behind many of the common transdermal treatments that are purported to reduce pain and inflammation and improve function. These include cryotherapy, laser treatments, electrical stimulation, ultrasound and phonophoresis, extracorporeal...

Treatment of tendinopathy: what works, what does not, and what is on the horizon.

Tendinopathy is a broad term encompassing painful conditions occurring in and around tendons in response to overuse. Recent basic science research suggests little or no inflammation is present in these conditions. Thus, traditional treatment modalities aimed at controlling inflammation such as corticosteroid injections and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications (NSAIDS) may not...

Management of chronic tendon injuries.

Chronic tendon injuries present unique management challenges. The assumption that these injuries result from ongoing inflammation has caused physicians to rely on treatments demonstrated to be ineffective in the long term. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be limited in the treatment of these injuries. Corticosteroid injections should be considered for temporizing...

Subacromial impingement syndrome–effectiveness of physiotherapy and manual therapy.

The subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) includes the rotator cuff syndrome, tendonitis and bursitis of the shoulder. Treatment includes surgical and non-surgical modalities. Non-surgical treatment is used to reduce pain, to decrease the subacromial inflammation, to heal the compromised rotator cuff and to restore satisfactory function of the shoulder. To select...

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