Transdermal approaches to pain in sports injury management.

There is much lore about training room treatments for common overuse and traumatic musculoskeletal injuries. This review looks at the evidence behind many of the common transdermal treatments that are purported to reduce pain and inflammation and improve function. These include cryotherapy, laser treatments, electrical stimulation, ultrasound and phonophoresis, extracorporeal...

Treatment of tendinopathy: what works, what does not, and what is on the horizon.

Tendinopathy is a broad term encompassing painful conditions occurring in and around tendons in response to overuse. Recent basic science research suggests little or no inflammation is present in these conditions. Thus, traditional treatment modalities aimed at controlling inflammation such as corticosteroid injections and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications (NSAIDS) may not...

Management of chronic tendon injuries.

Chronic tendon injuries present unique management challenges. The assumption that these injuries result from ongoing inflammation has caused physicians to rely on treatments demonstrated to be ineffective in the long term. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be limited in the treatment of these injuries. Corticosteroid injections should be considered for temporizing...

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