Effectiveness of Faradic and Russian currents on plantar flexor muscle spasticity, ankle motor recovery, and functional gait in stroke patients.

Spasticity is a major disabling symptom in patients post stroke. Though studies have demonstrated that electrical stimulation (ES) can reduce spasticity and improve passive ankle range of motion (ROM), not many studies have evaluated the effectiveness of ES on active ankle ROM. The purpose of this study was to determine...

Transdermal approaches to pain in sports injury management.

There is much lore about training room treatments for common overuse and traumatic musculoskeletal injuries. This review looks at the evidence behind many of the common transdermal treatments that are purported to reduce pain and inflammation and improve function. These include cryotherapy, laser treatments, electrical stimulation, ultrasound and phonophoresis, extracorporeal...

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