Rehabilitation of syndesmotic (high) ankle sprains.

High ankle sprains are common in athletes who play contact sports. Most high ankle sprains are treated nonsurgically with a rehabilitation program. All years of PUBMED, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL PLUS, SPORTDiscuss, Google Scholar, and Web of Science were searched to August 2010, cross-referencing existing publications. Keywords included...

The role of physical agents in modulating pain.

This article presents a review of the literature on the use of physical agents in modulating pain associated the hand and upper extremity musculoskeletal conditions. The physical agents presented include superficial heating agents, cryotherapy, ultrasound, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. There has been increased interest in modes of transdermal drug...

Transdermal approaches to pain in sports injury management.

There is much lore about training room treatments for common overuse and traumatic musculoskeletal injuries. This review looks at the evidence behind many of the common transdermal treatments that are purported to reduce pain and inflammation and improve function. These include cryotherapy, laser treatments, electrical stimulation, ultrasound and phonophoresis, extracorporeal...

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